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'A' plants that starting with the... (3 results) :

Ada Çayı, Saliva Offisinalis

Description : It is a member of the family Lamiaceae (Labiatae). The motherland of the plant is Southern Europe. 500 species of Salvias have been determined since now. Approximately 90 of them grow in our country. However, Salvia Officinalis L is the best and the most common for medicinal use. (Medicinal sage is not grown in our country however it can be cultivated as the seeds are obtained). The sage grown in our country and having remedial specialties is Salvia fruticosa (S. triloba) (Anadolu adaçayı, Elma çalbası).
Explanation :

Salvia L. officinalis is a perennial, shrub plant with 50-100 cm height, blue to purplish flowers and simple leaves. The plant has special aroma and it tastes bitter. The leaves of the plant are used for medicinal use. The leaves are oval having 3-8 cm length and 1-4 cm width which are slightly dentate, grayish and hairy in both faces. The leaves are picked in blooming days and second half of September and left to dry in the shade. The dried leaves should be kept in well-closed pockets and without being exposed to light. The plant is also used for obtaining essential oil.

The components of salvia include tannin, bitter substance and essential oil (1-2.5%). 30-50% of essential oil is thuyone, 15% cineole and 10% borneol. Moreover in the analysis it is determined that it includes saponin, diterpene, flavonoids, phenolic acids, resin and estrogenic substances. The aromatic oil the plant contains provides feature for reducing sweating (water retainer), which makes the plant a disinfectant. Thanks to being water retainer it reduces night sweating for the patients with tuberculosis.

The estrogenic specialties of the plant minimize night sweating during menopause period. It eliminates menstrual pain and helps to eliminate menstrual irregularity. It relieves metrodynia thanks to its myorelaxant effects. The grains in the compounds of salvia have astringent characteristic. Therefore it is used in the children against diarrhea. The rozmarin acid in the compounds of the plant eliminates inflammation. The essential oil is stimulus on the digestion and carminative. Salvia also helps muscle relaxation by its antispasmodic effect as many other spices used. In the investigation carried out in Germany, the salvia drunk on an empty stomach lowers the blood glucose. Towards the end of 1920’s salvia was advised as mouthwash against throat ache and mash against the sprain and destension in USA. Relief effect is against nervosity, dizziness, fever, weakened nerve system. It is proved that salvia makes cholinergic neuron destruction and therefore it is cholinergic neuron activity regulator against Alzheimer, in other words it has anti- cholinergic effect (1).

Use in the Industry: It is used commonly in pharmaceutical industry. The infusion of the leaves of salvia is included in the compounds of mouthwash and syrups. Thanks to its aromatic odor it is also commonly used in the cosmetic industry. It is especially used in manufacturing of relaxing bath soap. Recently it is blended with other herbs which have remedial characteristics and introduced into the market as tea.

Use: The plant is commonly used. Its infusion is used against inflammation in throat and nerve weakness. Another method to use is blending it honey and vinegar, which is good for psychological depression, severe colds and some gynecological diseases. It is also used for appetizing and eliminating diarrhea.

50% of the essential oil obtained from Salvia triloba (Salvia fructicosa) the specie of salvia growing in our country with 3% efficiency consists of 1,8 sineol. Known as apple oil, this oil can be consumed by dripping into the water as carminative, gastric, antiperspirant and diuretic. It has relief, gastric, diuretic, sweating, relaxing, antiseptic in mouth and throat, disinfectant effects. The reason why the oil is called ‘apple oil’ the galls of the plant look like apple. (Başer; Kırımer, 2010: 70). Salvia is an important export product for our country.

Points to take into account: It is not appropriate for the kids under 2 years old. The toxic substance thuyone may cause heart-throb. However the toxic effect may cause problem as consumed with alcohol and consumed as oil. There is no harm to consume as tea. There is no thuyone in salvia extract obtained as extraction with compressed gas. However, the cost of the process is quite high (1).

It is prohibited for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers. Because it reduces galactosis. It can be used for weaning the babies. Long term use may cause trembling like epilepsy. The daily maximum dose is quite important.

Bibliography

1. BAŞER, K. Hüsnü Can; KIRIMER, Neş’ e, Farmakognozi 3, Anadolu University Faculty of Pharmacy Publications, Eskişehir, 2010.
2. BAYTOP, Prof Dr Turhan, Türkiye’ de Bitkilerle Tedavi, Nobel Medical Bookstore, 2. Press, İstanbul, 1999.
3. Ülkemizde Bazı Önemli Orman Tali Ürünlerinin Teşhis ve Tanıtım Kılavuzu, Agriculture, Forestry and Rural Affairs Genaral Directorate of Forestry, Ankara, 1987.
4. Çubukçu, Bayhan, et al., Fitoterapi, İstanbul University Press and Publishing Directorate, İstanbul, 2002.

5. BAŞER, K. Hüsnü Can; KIRIMER, Neş’ e, Farmakognozi 2 Uygulamaları El Kitabı, Anadolu University Faculty of Pharmacy Publications, Eskişehir, 2009

6. Avrupa Farmakopesi, 6. Press
7. BAYTOP, Asuman, Farmasötik Botanik, Dilek Printing House, İstanbul, 1983.

Indication : Menopause sweating, menstrual irregularity, throat infections, urinary tract infections, digestion gases, disease with neuron destruction.
Usage :

Ada ÇayıPreparation: 1 teaspoon salvia is put into a cup of boiling water. It is waited for 5 minutes and then filtered.

Preparation for Mouthwash: Boiling water is poured on 2 teaspoons salvia. It is waited for 15 minutes and then filtered.
Preparation for Mouthwash with essential oil: 2-3 drips of oil is dripped into 100 ml water. 
 

Zeynep Akbey

Anadolu Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi öğ.

Translated by Nedim Yavuz
 

Ananas, Pineapple, Ananas Comosus

Description : Bromeliaceae familyasından sıcak ülkelerde yetişen bitki ve onun meyvesi. Anayurdu Güney Amerika'dır. Meyvesi iri, güzel kokulu ve lezzetlidir, üstünde bir demet yaprak vardır. Çok lezzetli olan meyvesi için tarımı yapılır. Bitkinin boyu 100 - 150 cm ve enlemesine yayılışı 90 cm kadar olur. Bitkinin pembe, çok çiçekli bölümü sonunda yenilebilir tek bir meyveye dönüşür.
Explanation :

Bitki etken madde olarak bromelain içerir. Bu madde, hücre kemotaksisini rehabilite eder, düzenler. Yani, savunma hücrelerinin davranışlarındaki aşırılıkları ve yetersizlikleri dengeye getirir. |antimikrobik etki|
Bromelainin nötrofillerin bir araya gelmelerini hızlandırdığı laboratuvar deneyleriyle, nötrofil etkinliğini %50-85 civarında artırdığı ise denek çalışmalarıyla kanıtlanmıştır. (1) Bu bilgilerle birlikte bitkinin kullanımı dikkate alınırsa, itihabi olaylar öncesinde ve esnasında kullanımı, hem süreci kısaltacak, hem de emflamasyonun şiddetini azaltacaktır.   

Ananasın NSAIDS [Non Steroid Anti Emflamatuvar] ilaçlara bir alternatif olarak eklem incinmelerinde kullanılabilmesinin, artritlerdeki etkinliğinin arkasında yine bromelain maddesi vardır. Bromelain proteolitik bir enzimdir. Protein sindirimini hızlandırır. Ölü dokuların temizlenmesine ve hücrelerin yenilenmesine bu nedenle katkıda bulunur.(2)|antiemflamatuvar etki|

Ayrıca, kronik venöz yetmezliklerde, gut, hemeoroid ve menstrual ağrılarda, otoimmun hastalıklarda ve ülseratif kolitte kısmi etkinliğini de bromalainin proteolitik |protein eritci| bir enzim olmasıyla açıklamak mümkündür. (3)

Bitki proteolitik enzim içermesi açısından kanserden korunma amaçlı olarak da kullanılabilmektedir. Ayrıca B vitaminleri ve demir, çinko, magnezyum gibi mineraller açısından da zengindir.

  1. Brien S, Lewith G, Walker A (2004). "Bromelain as a Treatment for Osteoarthritis: a Review of Clinical Studies". Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine: eCAM. 1 (3): 251–257. doi:10.1093/ecam/neh035. PMID 15841258
  2. Kleef R, Delohery T, Bovbjerg D (1996). "Selective modulation of cell adhesion molecules on lymphocytes by bromelain protease 5". Pathobiology 64 (6): 339–46. doi:10.1159/000164070. PMID 9159029
  3. Beuth J. (2008). Proteolytic enzyme therapy in evidence-based complementary oncology: fact of fiction? Integr Cancer Ther. 7:311-316.

Ayrıca:

Oxford English Dictionary entries for pineapple and pine cones, 1971.
//www.healthmad.com/Nutrition/Nutritional-Benefits-of-Pineapple.66001
Adaikan, P. Ganesan; Adebiyi, Adebowale (December 2004). "Mechanisms of the Oxytocic Activity of Papaya Proteinases". Pharmaceutical Biology (Taylor & Francis) 42 (8): 646–655

Indication : ölü hücrelerin temizlenmesi, kan inceltici, apse, iltihabi reaksiyon, romatizma, idrar yolları enfeksiyonu, kronik venöz yetmezlikler, gut, hemeoroid, menstrual ağrılar, otoimmun hastalıklar, ülseratif kolit
Usage :

Ananas bitkisiBir ananas 7 dilime bölünür, her gece yatmadan önce veya sabahları aç karına yenir.

 

                                                                                        Ananas bitkisi

Anason, Anise, Pimpinella Anisum

Description : Anason bitkisi 1 metreye kadar boylanabilen, 2-5 cm kadar kısa dalcıkları olan, şemsiye tarzında çiçeklenen, kendine has hoş kokulu otsu bir bitkidir. Maydanozgiller içersinde gerek şekil, gerekse içerik ve etki bakımından en çok rezeneye benzer.
Explanation :

Bitkinin ana maddesi 'anethol'dür. Rezeneye oranla etkin maddeyi daha yoğun içerir. Anethol, su ile seyreltildiğinde opak renk alan, 234 C’de kaynayan ve 20 C’de donan, kristalize, motor aktiviteyi azaltan, hipnotik, analjezik, antikonvülzan ve antipiretik bir bileşiktir.* Anetholün bir ara kanserojen olduğu iddia edilmişse de tartışma şimdilik anethol lehine sonuçlanmıştır. |sakinleştirici, antikonvülzan etkiler|

Anethol bir bitkisel östrojendir. Bu nedenle süt üretimini etkiler ve rahim üzerinde ikicil etkisini meydana getirir. |dismenore ve laktasyon -süt üretimi- üzerindeki etkiler|

*Yani bitki kullanıldığında, sakinleştirici, uyku verici, ağrı kesici, ateş düşürücü, kas gevşetici, adet düzenleyici, süt arttırıcı, iştah açıcı, bulantı önleyici etkiler meydana gelir.

Anethol yüksek dozlarda hafifçe toksiktir.

  1. a b c Newberne PM, Carlton WW, Brown WR (January 1989). "Histopathological evaluation of proliferative liver lesions in rats fed trans-anethole in chronic studies". Food Chem. Toxicol. 27 (1): 21–6. PMID 2467866. 
  2. Waddell WJ (August 2002). "Thresholds of carcinogenicity of flavors". Toxicol. Sci. 68 (2): 275–9. PMID 12151622. //toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12151622
  3. Trans-anethole, WHO Food Additives Series, 14, International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS), //www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v14je02.htm 
  4. Trans-anethole, WHO Food Additives Series, 28, International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS), 1998, //www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v28je10.htm
Indication : kramplar, iştahsızlık, mide bulantısı, uykusuzluk, gece uyanmaları, yatak ıslatma, süt azlığı, adet düzensizliği, sinirlilik, astım, gaz şikayetleri, sindirim düzensizlikleri, ateş, ağrı
Usage :
anason tohumuRezene gibi anasonun da daha çok tohumları kullanılır. Çay gibi demlenerek, ya da öğütülüp baharat olarak veya bala karıştırmak suretiyle alınabilir.


                                                                                       Anason tohumu

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